2012-14 Academic Catalog

Department of Philosophy and World Religions

(College of Humanities, Arts and Sciences)


www.uni.edu/philrel

The Department of Philosophy and World Religions offers the following undergraduate programs.  Specific requirements for these programs are listed within this Department of Philosophy and World Religions section in the following order:

  • Undergraduate Majors (B.A.)
    • Philosophy
    • Study of Religion
  • Minors
    • Ethics
    • Philosophy
    • Religion

Bachelor of Arts Degree Programs

Philosophy Major

The Philosophy major requires a minimum of 120 total hours to graduate. This total includes Liberal Arts Core requirements and the following specified major requirements, plus electives to complete the minimum of 120 hours.

Required
Philosophy:
PHIL 1030 (650:045)Elementary Logic3
PHIL 3500 (650:142)Ethics3
PHIL 4010/5010 (650:150g)Knowledge and Reality3
Select at least three of the following:9-12
History of Philosophy: Ancient
History of Philosophy: Medieval
History of Philosophy: Renaissance through Enlightenment
History of Philosophy: Modern
Electives from the following:9-12
Philosophy: The Art of Thinking
Money, Sex and Power: Theories of Race, Class and Gender
Philosophy of Art
Philosophy of Science
The Human Person
Society, Politics, and the Person
Philosophy of Religion
Marxisms
Existentialism
Phenomenology and Foucault
Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the "Overcoming" of Western Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language: Wittgenstein
Critical Perspectives on Gender
Additional electives in philosophy6
Total hours36

Major in the Study of Religion

The Study of Religion major requires a minimum of 120 total hours to graduate. This total includes Liberal Arts Core requirements, the specified major requirements, plus electives to complete the minimum of 120 hours.

Required
World Religions Core:
RELS 3210 (640:130)Great Living Religions: Hinduism and Buddhism3
RELS 3220 (640:132)Confucianism, Daoism, and Zen3
RELS 3230 (640:134)Great Living Religions: Judaism and Islam3
RELS 3240 (640:136)Great Living Religions: Christianity *3
Select 3 hours from each of the following categories:
Interactions Within and Among Religions:3
What is Religion?
Angels Across Cultures
Meditation and Mystical Experience
Religion and Society *
Religion and Sexuality *
Religion and Culture:3
Religion, Ethics, and Film
Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft
Malcolm, Martin, and Justice
Black Liberation and the Black Church
Religion and Ethics
Women and Christianity *
Religion in America
Perspectives on Death and Dying
Textual and Analytical Explorations of Religion:3
Old Testament and Other Hebrew Scriptures
New Testament and Early Christian Writings
Philosophy of Religion *
Religion and Its Critics *
Why We Believe *
Myth and Symbol
Existentialism *
Senior Seminar:
RELS 4410Senior Seminar in Religion3
Students are also required to take at least two required or elective courses as Writing Enhanced courses as designated(*).
Electives in the Study of Religion (select from any courses above, plus the following):12
Religions of the World
Individual Readings in Religion
Ethics Practicum
RELS 4186/5186 (640:186g)/5186 (640:186g) "Studies in"
and not more than two courses from:
Bio-Medical Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Ethics in Business
Total Hours36

*

Writing Enhanced courses.


 

Pre-Theological Emphasis

Students preparing for ministry or for graduate professional education in theology at a seminary or divinity school, regardless of major, are advised to consult with the pre-theological advisor, who will help them to know the requirements of individual schools and to plan an undergraduate program appropriately designed for their professional interests.

Minors

Ethics Minor

The Ethics minor is intended to provide students of diverse major fields of study a way to focus and develop their interest in ethics both by offering them a core of courses essential to an understanding of the field of ethics and by advising them in the selection of courses that enable them to develop depth and detail in theoretical, professional and applied ethics.

Required
Study of Religion:
RELS 3500 (640:171)Religion and Ethics3
Philosophy:
PHIL 3500 (650:142)Ethics3
Select one of the following: 3
Study of Religion:
Religions of the World
Religion, Ethics, and Film
Philosophy:
Philosophy: The Art of Thinking
Reasoning About Moral Problems
Select one of the following: 3
Philosophy or Study of Religion:
Bio-Medical Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Ethics in Business
Philosophy:
Ethics in Public Policy
Electives: select one of the following:3
Management:
Legal and Social Environment of Business
Finance:
Risk Management and Insurance
Teaching:
Human Relations: Awareness and Application
Psychology:
Social Psychology
Social Work:
Seminar in Social Work
Communication:
Performance and Social Change
Ethics in Communication
Study of Religion:
Religion and Its Critics
Philosophy:
Society, Politics, and the Person
Marxisms
Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the "Overcoming" of Western Metaphysics
Philosophy or Study of Religion:
Perspectives on Death and Dying
Ethics Practicum
Existentialism
Humanities:
Culture and Philosophy of African American Life
Political Science:
Classical Political Theory
Modern Political Theory
History:
African-American History
United States Constitutional History
Modern European Women's History
Total Hours15

Philosophy Minor

Required
Philosophy:
PHIL 1020 (650:021)Philosophy: The Art of Thinking3
Two courses in history of philosophy series6
Electives in philosophy12
Total Hours21

Religion Minor

Required
Study of Religion:
RELS 1020 (640:024)Religions of the World3
RELS 3001 (640:141)Old Testament and Other Hebrew Scriptures3
or RELS 3002 (640:142) New Testament and Early Christian Writings
Electives in world religions15
Total Hours21

 

B.A. Degree - Philosophy Major (Major Code 650)

  

Freshman
FallHoursSpringHours
HUM 1022 (680:022)3Other Liberal Arts Core9
PHIL 1020 (650:021)3PHIL 1030 (650:045)3
Other Liberal Arts Core9HUM 1023 (680:023)3
 15 15
Sophomore
FallHoursSpringHours
Liberal Arts Core12Ethics3
PHIL 3210 (650:100)3Liberal Arts Core9
 PHIL 3220 (650:101)3
 15 15
Junior
FallHoursSpringHours
University Electives9University Electives6
PHIL 3230 (650:103)3Any Philosophy Course3
PHIL 4010/5010 (650:150g)3PHIL 3240 (650:104)3
 15 12
Senior
FallHoursSpringHours
University Electives9University Electives12
Any two Philosophy Courses6Any One Philosophy Course3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 117

 

B.A. Degree - Study of Religion Major (Major Code 641)

  

Freshman
FallHoursSpringHours
HUM 1021 (680:021)3Liberal Arts Core3
RELS 1030 (640:030)3University Electives6
Liberal Arts Core6RELS 3002 (640:142)3
University Elective3HUM 1022 (680:022)3
 15 15
Sophomore
FallHoursSpringHours
Liberal Arts Core6One RELS Course in Interactions/Religions3
University Elective3Liberal Arts Core6
RELS 3001 (640:141)3University Elective3
RELS 3210 (640:130)3RELS 3230 (640:134)3
 15 15
Junior
FallHoursSpringHours
One RELS Course in Religion and Culture3Liberal Arts Core3
Liberal Arts Core3University Electives6
University Electives6One RELS (Religion) Course3
RELS 3220 (640:132)3RELS 3240 (640:136)3
 15 15
Senior
FallHoursSpringHours
Liberal Arts Core6University Electives9
University Electives6Liberal Arts Core3
RELS 44103One RELS (Religion) Course3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

 

Philosophy Courses

PHIL 1020 (650:021). Philosophy: The Art of Thinking — 3 hrs.

Introductory exploration of questions concerning nature of self, reality, meaning, knowledge, truth, faith, value, and obligation. (Fall, Spring)

PHIL 1030 (650:045). Elementary Logic — 3 hrs.

Methods, principles, and rules of reasoning with emphasis on their practical uses in effective thinking, scientific inquiry, and verbal communication. (Fall, Spring)

PHIL 1510. Ethics for College Students — 3 hrs.

Students learn how, not what, to think about ethical issues of personal and college life: academic ethics, sexual conduct, alcohol and drugs, career choices, religious/political/social/racial diversity, and ties to family, friends and community. (Variable)

PHIL 2010 (650:050). Reasoning About Moral Problems — 3 hrs.

Introduction to critical thinking and writing about moral and social problems. Topics may include hunger, economic justice, anti-Semitism, sexism, animal rights, affirmative action, abortion, and homosexuality. (Variable)

PHIL 3010 (650:151). Money, Sex and Power: Theories of Race, Class and Gender — 3 hrs.

Examination of social and ethical aspects of oppression and privilege in personal and political life. Study of concepts and meaning of categories such as race, ethnicity, class, gender and sexuality, and evaluation of strategies of resistance and/or accommodation. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as CAP 3151 (CAP:151))(Variable)

PHIL 3080/5080 (650:189g). Individual Readings in Philosophy — 1-3 hrs.

Individually arranged readings and reports drawn from history of philosophy or contemporary philosophical problems. May be repeated for maximum of 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): junior standing; consent of department head. (Fall, Spring)

PHIL 3110 (650:194). Perspectives on Death and Dying — 3 hrs.

Multidisciplinary study of death, dying, and bereavement across cultures, religious and ethnic groups, and historical periods, with attention to ritual and memoir, ethical dilemmas at the end of life, and psychology of mourning. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as CAP 3194 (CAP:194))(Fall, Spring)

PHIL 3120 (650:143). Philosophy of Art — 3 hrs.

Examines the question of the nature of art through a discussion of the major philosophical theories: imitation theory, expression theory, and formalism, as well as a critique of these theories. Field trips included. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Even Falls)

PHIL 3130 (650:119). Philosophy of Science — 3 hrs.

Philosophical problems of the sciences; nature of laws and theories, causation, explanation and scientific method, and relation between natural and social sciences. (Variable)

PHIL 3210 (650:100). History of Philosophy: Ancient — 3 hrs.

History of philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to late antiquity, with emphasis on Plato and Aristotle. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Odd Falls)

PHIL 3220 (650:101). History of Philosophy: Medieval — 3 hrs.

History of philosophy from late Roman times through Middle Ages, with emphasis on Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Even Springs)

PHIL 3230 (650:103). History of Philosophy: Renaissance through Enlightenment — 3 hrs.

History of philosophy from Renaissance through Hume, with emphasis on continental rationalism and British empiricism. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Even Falls)

PHIL 3240 (650:104). History of Philosophy: Modern — 3 hrs.

History of philosophy from Kant to present; emphasis on idealism, romanticism, materialism, positivism, phenomenology, existentialism. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Odd Springs)

PHIL 3310/5310 (650:153g). The Human Person — 3 hrs.

Philosophical study of human nature and mind informed by biology and modern sciences of mind. Topics include relation of mind to body, consciousness, free will, the implications of Darwinism, and the nature of emotions. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Odd Springs)

PHIL 3320 (650:172). Society, Politics, and the Person — 3 hrs.

Critical investigation of contexts of engagement and responsibility of persons as members of social institutions and as participants in public discourse on policy and law. (Even Springs)

PHIL 3500 (650:142). Ethics — 3 hrs.

Study of the major school of ethical theory through reading major thinkers and their contemporary commentators. Examination of selected theoretical and practical problems in contemporary ethics. Prerequisite(s): one philosophy course and sophomore standing, or consent of instructor. (Fall, Spring)

PHIL 3510 (650:173). Bio-Medical Ethics — 3 hrs.

Application of principles and analytic methods of ethical theory to contemporary issues in medical practice and research. Topics include fundamental concepts of health and disease, life and death; rights and obligations of medical practitioners and their patients; informed consent and confidentiality; abortion and euthanasia; reproductive and transplantation technologies; and health policy and the provision and rationing of health care. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as CAP 3173 (CAP:173))(Fall, Spring)

PHIL 3530/5530 (650:175g). Environmental Ethics — 3 hrs.

Introduction to and application of ethical theory to environmental issues, including responsibility for plants and animals, pollution, natural resources, and population growth. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as RELS 3520/5520 (640:175g))(Variable)

PHIL 3540/5540 (650:174g). Ethics in Business — 3 hrs.

Application of ethical principles and analytic methods to contemporary issues in business. Topics include moral responsibility of corporations and their regulation; economic policy, business practices, and social justice; rights and obligations of employers and employees; meaningful work, motivation, and the worker; affirmative action and reverse discrimination; environment and natural limits of capitalism. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as RELS 3540/5540 (640:174g))(Fall, Spring)

PHIL 3550 (650:197). Ethics Practicum — 1-3 hrs.

Combines service-learning with study of theoretical and applied ethics. Students work 4-6 hours per week in a community agency and meet with instructor. May be repeated once. Prerequisite(s): one completed or concurrent ethics course; consent of instructor. (Same as RELS 3550 (640:197))(Variable)

PHIL 4010/5010 (650:150g). Knowledge and Reality — 3 hrs.

Study of variety of knowledge-claims about the world and of the structures of reality implied. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Fall)

PHIL 4110/5110 (650:113g). Philosophy of Religion — 3 hrs.

Examination of philosophical discussions on the nature and function of religion and religious language; special attention to how philosophical frameworks and methods shape understanding of religion and talk about God and human fulfillment. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as RELS 4110/5110 (640:113g))(Variable)

PHIL 4186/5186 (650:186g). Studies in Philosophy — 3 hrs.

Study of philosophical thinker or problem listed in Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Fall, Spring)

PHIL 4310/5310 (650:105g). Marxisms — 3 hrs.

Marxism as a critical method to examine social, political, and economic issues. Includes classic works of Marx and Engels, varieties of socialism and communism, 60s New Left, socialist feminism, liberation theology, third world liberation, and anti-globalization movements. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

PHIL 4320/5320 (650:152g). Existentialism — 3 hrs.

The unique contribution of existentialism to philosophy is its sustained focus on everyday life: the contradictions of human existence, the human body, the existence of others, and human freedom. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as RELS 4320/5320 (640:152g))(Odd Falls)

PHIL 4330/5330 (650:160g). Phenomenology and Foucault — 3 hrs.

Examination of phenomenology, the description of basic structures of human experience. Focus on Martin Heidegger and others on conscious, practical, social, mortal, and embodied life; then Michel Foucault on forms of power in social science and modern culture. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

PHIL 4410/5410 (650:164g). Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the "Overcoming" of Western Metaphysics — 3 hrs.

Examination of Nietzsche's genealogy, diagnosis, and prognosis of contemporary nihilism, the experience of one's values as empty or meaningless. Examination of Heidegger's later critique of Nietzsche's views as expressions of problematic aspects of the modern technological age. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

PHIL 4420/5420 (650:166g). Philosophy of Language: Wittgenstein — 3 hrs.

Examination of Wittgenstein, sometimes called "the two most important philosophers" of the 20th century. Topics include language and formal logic, language as social practice, and ways in which classic philosophical problems arise from a misunderstanding of how we use common words. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

PHIL 6010 (650:250). Critical Perspectives on Gender — 3 hrs.

Examines gender as a category of critical analysis, including intersections with race, ethnicity, class, sexualities, identities, embodiedness, etc. Explores how feminist theories become methods, ideologies, strategies, lenses and metaphors to understand and challenge our worlds. (Variable)

PHIL 6510 (650:245). Ethics in Public Policy — 2 hrs.

Attention to major ethical issues facing practitioners of public policy analysis through: a study of ethical principles and procedures of analysis; application of these methods to crucial questions of professional conduct and responsibility; and their application to selected policy problems of timely interest. Prerequisite(s): enrollment in the Master of Public Policy Degree Program or consent of instructor. (Fall)

Religion Courses

RELS 1020 (640:024). Religions of the World — 3 hrs.

Living religions with emphasis on texts, beliefs, tradition, values, and practices. (Fall, Spring, Summer)

RELS 1030 (640:030). What is Religion? — 3 hrs.

Basic forms and views of religious phenomena, such as encounter, tradition, ritual, community, divine law, meditation, mysticism, response to life-crisis, and personal growth and fulfillment. (Variable)

RELS 1510 (640:040). Religion, Ethics, and Film — 3 hrs.

Introduction to study of religion through critical examination of a variety of contemporary films. Draws on student visual literacy as approach to the study of religion. (Variable)

RELS 3001 (640:141). Old Testament and Other Hebrew Scriptures — 3 hrs.

Introduction to history and ideas of Old Testament and other Hebrew scriptures. (Fall)

RELS 3002 (640:142). New Testament and Early Christian Writings — 3 hrs.

Introduction to history and ideas of New Testament and early Christian writings. (Spring)

RELS 3010 (640:110). Angels Across Cultures — 3 hrs.

Study of the persistent belief in angels and angel-like, superhuman beings in different religions and cultures, and examination of dynamics of popular religion. (Odd Springs)

RELS 3020 (640:126). Meditation and Mystical Experience — 3 hrs.

Examination of various techniques of meditation and their results, drawing from Yoga, Zen, Buddhist, Christian, and secular sources including first-hand accounts of meditational practice and philosophic and psychological studies in the area of mysticism. (Variable)

RELS 3080/5080 (640:189g). Individual Readings in Religion — 1-3 hrs.

Individually-arranged readings and reports from: (1) biblical studies, (2) history of religions, or (3) contemporary religious thought. Can be repeated for maximum of 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): junior standing; consent of department head. (Fall, Spring)

RELS 3103 (640:161). Religion, Magic, and Witchcraft — 3 hrs.

Anthropological understanding of behavior dealing with the supernatural; supernatural beliefs, practices, and movements throughout the world. (Same as ANTH 3103 (990:161))(Spring)

RELS 3110 (640:194). Perspectives on Death and Dying — 3 hrs.

Multidisciplinary study of death, dying, and bereavement across cultures, religious and ethnic groups, and historical periods, with attention to ritual and memoir, ethical dilemmas at the end of life, and psychology of mourning. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 3110 (650:194))(Fall, Spring)

RELS 3210 (640:130). Great Living Religions: Hinduism and Buddhism — 3 hrs.

Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam. (Even Falls)

RELS 3220 (640:132). Confucianism, Daoism, and Zen — 3 hrs.

Daoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Shintoism. (Odd Falls)

RELS 3230 (640:134). Great Living Religions: Judaism and Islam — 3 hrs.

Study of the doctrines and practices of Judaism and Islam in their cultural context with attention to historical development and current situation. (Odd Springs)

RELS 3240 (640:136). Great Living Religions: Christianity — 3 hrs.

Introductory survey of development, beliefs, practices, and varieties of Christianity. (Even Springs)

RELS 3310 (640:138). Malcolm, Martin, and Justice — 3 hrs.

How might religious leaders insert themselves in the struggle for justice and human rights? Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. represent the intricate involvement of black religious leaders in the African American struggle for social, political, and economic justice. (Same as HUM 3138 (680:138))(Variable)

RELS 3320 (640:140). Black Liberation and the Black Church — 3 hrs.

Explores black liberation in America through advancing the understanding of black nationalism, the black church, and black liberation theology from an historical and social/political perspective. Some knowledge of African American culture and thought recommended. (Variable)

RELS 3500 (640:171). Religion and Ethics — 3 hrs.

Examination of key issues having to do with religion and ethics, including the moral function of religion, religious pluralism, war and peace, freedom and responsibility, religion and politics, religion and gender, and social justice. (Variable)

RELS 3510 (640:173). Bio-Medical Ethics — 3 hrs.

Application of principles and analytic methods of ethical theory to contemporary issues in medical practice and research. Topics include fundamental concepts of health and disease, life and death; rights and obligations of medical practitioners and their patients; informed consent and confidentiality; abortion and euthanasia; reproductive and transplantation technologies; and health policy and the provision and rationing of health care. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 3510 (650:173))(Fall, Spring)

RELS 3520/5520 (640:175g). Environmental Ethics — 3 hrs.

Introduction to and application of ethical theory to environmental issues, including responsibility for plants and animals, pollution, natural resources, and population growth. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 3530/5530 (650:175g))(Variable)

RELS 3540/5540 (640:174g). Ethics in Business — 3 hrs.

Application of ethical principles and analytic methods to contemporary issues in business. Topics include moral responsibility of corporations and their regulation; economic policy, business practices, and social justice; rights and obligations of employers and employees; meaningful work, motivation, and the worker; affirmative action and reverse discrimination; and environment and natural limits of capitalism. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 3540/5540 (650:174g))(Fall, Spring)

RELS 3550 (640:197). Ethics Practicum — 1-3 hrs.

Combines service-learning with study of theoretical and applied ethics. Students work 4-6 hours per week in a community agency and meet with instructor. May be repeated once. Prerequisite(s): one completed or concurrent ethics course; consent of instructor. (Same as PHIL 3550 (650:197))(Variable)

RELS 4110/5110 (640:113g). Philosophy of Religion — 3 hrs.

Examination of philosophical discussions on the nature and function of religion and religious language; special attention to how philosophical frameworks and methods shape understanding of religion and talk about God and human fulfillment. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 4110/5110 (650:113g))(Variable)

RELS 4120/5120 (640:115g). Religion and Its Critics — 3 hrs.

Issues raised by encounter between traditional Christian faith and modern concepts and methods of philosophy, science, history, sociology, and cultural criticism. Examination of positions of both 19th- and 20th-century theologians. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

RELS 4130/5130 (640:158g). Why We Believe — 3 hrs.

What do witches, monsters, and gods have in common? This course draws on psychology to explore the origins of human religious belief among children and to understand how we develop our capacity for religious belief. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Odd Falls)

RELS 4140/5140 (640:154g). Myth and Symbol — 3 hrs.

Investigation of meaning and significance of religious myths and symbols, and theories used to study them. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

RELS 4150/5150 (640:162g). Women and Christianity — 3 hrs.

Examination of history and function of gender in symbolization of Christian tradition; exploration of institutionalization of sex roles in Christianity; discussion of interaction between the Christian religion and cultural patterns that define the social role, status, and image of women. Interested students are encouraged to contact the instructor. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

RELS 4160/5160 (640:165g). Religion and Society — 3 hrs.

Religious institutions and their social context; key issues located at the intersection of religion and society (e.g., violence), and social function of religion. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Odd Springs)

RELS 4170/5170 (640:168g). Religion and Sexuality — 3 hrs.

Examination of ways in which religions shape and reflect ideas about the body and sexuality. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Variable)

RELS 4186/5186 (640:186g). Studies in Religion — 3 hrs.

Topics listed in Schedule of Classes. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Fall, Spring)

RELS 4230/5230 (640:117g). Religion in America — 3 hrs.

Investigation of religious movements and beliefs from colonial times to present, with attention to religion and the U.S. Constitution. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as HISUS 4250/5250 (961:145g))(Fall)

RELS 4320/5320 (640:152g). Existentialism — 3 hrs.

The unique contribution of existentialism to philosophy is its sustained focus on everyday life: the contradictions of human existence, the human body, the existence of others, and human freedom. Prerequisite(s): junior standing. (Same as PHIL 4320/5320 (650:152g))(Odd Falls)

RELS 4410. Senior Seminar in Religion — 3 hrs.

Through reflection, integration, and professional discernment, religion majors will bring their work in the major to critical integration, clarifying what they have done and linking their achievements with life goals. (Variable)